ارت

سیستم ارت

سیستم برق بر اساس پتانسیل الکتریکی یا ولتاژ عمل می کند. اختلاف پتانسیل بین دو نقطه سبب ایجاد انرژی الکتریکی می شود. این انرژی سبب به کار افتادن تجهیزات برقی می شود. در سیستم برق مصرفی بین فاز و نول و یا دو فاز غیر همنام اختلاف پتانسیل وجود دارد. این عدد در کشور ما بین فاز و نول 220 ولت و بین دو فاز غیر همنام 380 ولت می باشد. این اختلاف پتانسیل بین هر فاز و زمین نیز وجود دارد و زمین به عنوان نقطه صفر ولتاژ لحاظ می شود. سیستم ارت برای هدایت جریان ناخواسته به زمین طراحی شده است.

تمامی تجهیزات بر اساس ولتاژ خاصی طراحی شده اند. این ولتاژ با عدد تعیین شده بین دو سر قطعات الکتریکی یا الکترونیکی بر قرار می شود. افزایش یا کاهش این عدد یا وارد شدن جریان از قسمت های دیگر سبب سوختن مدارات و تولید جرقه می گردد.

نکته دیگر برق گرفتگی است. در صورتی که بدن انسان بین دو نقطه با اختلاف فاز مثل فاز و نول یا فاز و زمین قرار بگیرد جریان الکتریکی از بدن انسان عبور می کند. این جریان سبب شوک الکتریکی و آسیب رسیدن به شخص یا از بین رفتن می شود.

به همین منظور از سیستم ارت استفاده می شود. در این سیستم در صورت وجود بار الکتریکی در قسمت هایی که نباید برق دار باشد به وجود بیاید بار به زمین منتقل می شود.

سیستم ارت چیست؟

در تعریف سیستم ارت این سیستم اتصال قسمت های خاص تجهیزات مانند بدنه و قسمت هایی که نباید برق دار باشند به سیستم زمین به جهت امنیت افراد و تجهیزات می باشد. قطعات الکترونیکی و بدن انسان دارای مقاومت الکتریکی می باشند. جریان الکتریکی همیشه مسیر کوتاه و دارای کمترین مقاومت را انتخاب می کند. فرض کنید که بدنه یک دستگاه برق دار شود و این بدنه به چاه ارت وصل باشد. حال دست ما به بدن این دستگاه می خورد. مقاومت بدن انسان ها با یکدیگر متفاوت است. این عدد از 1 کیلو اهم تا 100 کیلو اهم بسته به خشک بودن و سالم بودن پوست و فیزیک افراد متغیر می باشد. نظر به مقاومت چاه ارت زیر 2 اهم جریان الکتریکی به زمین منتقل می شود.

این مسئله در مورد مدارات الکتریکی نیز صادق است با این تفاوت که این مدارات ممکن است دارای مقاومت بسیار کمتری از بدن انسان باشند. به همین علت چاه ارت باید دارای کمترین مقاومت ممکن باشد.

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